The Palestine Solidarity Campaign of Jew hatred
Scratch the surface of any chapter of the Palestine Solidarity Campaign and you’re likely to come across an anti-Semite. This kind of statement is hardly new on the blog pages of the Times of Israel but never has it been given such a basis in fact as it has today by David Collier.
The London-based blogger has painstakingly trawled through the shadowy corners of Facebook to gather a powerful data set exposing a broad swathe of the Palestine Solidarity Campaign’s street activists as anti-Semites and/or barking mad conspiracy theorists. His report, “Antisemitism in the Palestine Solidarity Campaign” (pdf)
serves to highlight in excruciating detail just how extensive the anti-Semitism in the Palestine Solidarity movement is, one social media post at a time.
The research is 75 pages long and features post after post of -anti-Semitic conspiracy theorizing straight from the accounts of some of the PSC’s most ardent activists. These posts show many PSC activists live in a delusional world where Zionists are responsible for just about everything.
In one example, a PSC activist posts a fake news story alleging that the head of ISIS was actually trained in Israel. One of their Facebook friends attacked the story as a slur on…(ISIS) “Mujahideen”!
Recently the PSC made a submission to the now infamous Chakrabarti Inquiry into antisemitism. In light of Collier’s research the document reads like a sick joke. That an organisation whose most active members are motivated by the belief that they’re engaged in a fight against a Zionist conspiracy to take over the world would seek to define antisemitism is an affront to Jews everywhere. According to the PSC;
“As an organisation we actively challenge racism, and do not tolerate antisemitism, Islamophobia, and all forms of racism within our membership.”
This is a fiction Collier has laid to rest. From now on it’s unlikely they’re going to be able to utter words like;
“It is vital that political parties avoid confusing or conflating support for Palestinian rights with antisemitism.”
This is advice the bosses at PSC should be taking on board themselves. Their quest for rights for Palestinians attracts way too many antisemites and the PSC as a body takes far too little responsibility when it comes to changing that proven fact. By refusing to act on the research PSC as a body is now complicit in the antisemitism of its own members. The next time they seek to contribute to any kind of Parliamentary finding one expects that they will be booted out of the room.
Rabbi Sacks on the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign
The Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign against Israel is dangerously wrong because beneath the surface it’s an attempt to delegtimize Israel as a prelude to its elimination. No Jew and no humanitarian can stand by and see that happen. Let me explain why.
Prof. Phyllis Chesler: The Lies They Tell – Tuvia Tenenbom’s latest book
Tuvia has often been attacked by left-wing critics who are not comfortable with his devastating exposure of “Fakestinian” victimhood and all those who are part of this vast, left-wing and Islamist conspiracy of dunces. His critique of left-wing Jews (often the first to criticize Israel but no one else), has won him no points among them and, in arguing Israel’s case, even in a low-key and humorous way, Tuvia has been treated as a “right wing-conservative.”
This is ironic. Much of what he writes can easily have been written by a left-wing journalist. For example:
“The America I find is not the America I wished to find. It is racist, it is hateful and its citizens are bound to destroy themselves. Be they black and some Spanish who have nothing better to do with their time than shoot each other in the head; be they Jews who are possessed by a terrifyingly psychotic illness of self-hate; be they Indians who have given up any semblance of spirituality in exchange for acres and casinos; or be they all the others: whites, the rest of the Spanish, Muslims, Mormons and others who live in fear of one another.”
“These American patriots, by a strange psychological coincidence, convince themselves that they are the only true guardians of culture and morality and therefore it is their duty to invade and bombard foreign countries that do not abide by their sense of morality and ethics…(Americans) have huge bombs and sometimes they like to drop them. America is also one of the strongest economies in the world, and at times the strongest of them all, but can humanity rely on this country? I wouldn’t.”
Left-wing, right-wing, wingless—I still hope this new book is also a bestseller.
In a previous blog post, I quoted Tacticus, the ancient Roman historian who said that the Temple of the Jews was in Jerusalem.
My intention was to refute Muslim propagandists who falsely claim that there was never a Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.
Now I present four quotes from Josephus, another ancient Roman historian who mentioned at least four times that the Temple of the Jews was in Jerusalem:
“At this point Crassus arrived to take over the governorship of Syria.
For the campaign against the Parthians he removed all the gold from the Sanctuary in Jerusalem…”
SOURCE: The Jewish War (chapter 1, page 51) by Flavius Josephus, translated by G.A. Williamson, 1984, published by Penguin Classics, ISBN: 0140444203 & 978-0140444209
“Gaius Caesar’s accession to power so completely turned his head that he wished to be thought of and addressed as a god, stripped his country of its noblest men, and proceeded to lay sacrilegious hands on Judea. He ordered Petronius to march with an army to Jerusalem and erect his statues in the Temple: if the Jews refused them, he was to execute the objectors and enslave all the rest of the population.”
SOURCE: The Jewish War (chapter 7, pages 139 to 140) by Flavius Josephus, translated by G.A. Williamson, 1984, published by Penguin Classics, ISBN: 0140444203 & 978-0140444209
One problem is the timidity of Jewish students. Other minorities do not hesitate to organize protests. Yet Jews, for some reason, have never had the fortitude, the interest, or the training to mobilize large numbers of their peers to demonstrate for their rights. Imagine if hundreds of Jews, at campuses like UCLA or NYU, marched and organized themselves. This would force officials to take the antisemitic behavior of groups such as Students for Justice in Palestine (SJP) seriously.
Jewish students should demand that Israel hate weeks be banned, and that SJP and other groups espousing antisemitic views (typically with student and taxpayer funding) should be banned from campus.
So far, Fordham University is the only campus that has had the courage to do so, despite the howls of protest from defenders of antisemitic speech.
In a statement that should be a model for other universities, Fordham Dean of Students Keith Eldredge explained, “While students are encouraged to promote diverse political points of view, and we encourage conversation and debate on all topics, I cannot support an organization whose sole purpose is advocating political goals of a specific group, and against a specific country –(Israel).”
He added, “The call for Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions of Israel presents a barrier to open dialogue and mutual learning and understanding.”
First Amendment advocates may object to banning hate speech. Let them. It didn’t stop Oklahoma from expelling students for singing a racist song. If, however, antisemitism is protected speech, then no university should be allowed to prevent other forms of offensive speech by anyone on campus. The Constitution will not win that confrontation.
For too long, universities have been the one place in America where antisemitism is tolerated. It is time that university officials respect Jews’ right to “define our own oppression.”
Dozens of headstones were found toppled at a Jewish cemetery in Philadelphia on Sunday.
Police said that the incident at the city’s Mount Carmel Cemetery was an act of vandalism and have opened an investigation, according to a local ABC affiliate.
Police did not say whether they were treating the case as a possible hate crime.
Israel’s Foreign Ministry Spokesman Emmanuel Nahshon condemned the incident, writing on Twitter that the “Philadelphia Jewish cemetery desecration is shocking and a source of worry. Full confidence US authorities catch and punish culprits.”
New Jersey resident Aaron Mallin, who made the discovery when visiting his father’s grave, told the local TV station he hoped it was not an anti-Semitic attack.
“I’m hoping it was maybe just some drunk kids. But the fact that there’s so many it leads one to think it could have been targeted,” Mallin said.
Jewish community centers in the eastern and midwestern US were targeted with bomb threats Monday, the latest in a series of incidents that has raised fears of anti-Semitism in the country.
Threats were called in to JCCs in Asheville, North Carolina; Birmingham, Alabama; York and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Tarrytown and Staten Island, New York; Indianapolis, Indiana; Cherry Hill, New Jersey; and Wilmington, Delaware.
Jewish day schools in Rockville, Maryland, and Fairfax, Virginia, both outside Washington, DC; and Davie, Florida, outside Miami, were also evacuated.
Those inside the buildings were evacuated and law enforcement was called in to investigate the threats. All clears were given in a number of cases.
Anti-Semitism is taking on potentially “pandemic” dimensions globally, even in the US, and if left unchecked could grow into an immensely serious threat, one of American Jewry’s most senior leaders said this week, calling on world leaders to convene a global summit to forcefully denounce the phenomenon.
“I think we’re seeing a pandemic in formation,” said Malcolm Hoenlein, who heads the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations. “I don’t think it’s here. I think America’s situation is different from Europe. But the potential is there.”
In a far-reaching interview, Hoenlein, who is currently in Israel, also spoke about widespread concerns over the Israeli government’s total alignment with US President Donald Trump, which some fear could turn Israel into a partisan issue in the United States. He called on Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to invite to Israel the newly elected head of the Democratic party, Tom Perez, in a bid to cement bipartisan support for the Jewish state.
“We saw anti-Semitism in Britain, we saw it in France, and now we see it’s spreading everywhere,” Hoenlein told The Times of Israel in its Jerusalem office on Sunday. “Look at the numbers of incidents in Germany, Scandinavia and other parts of the world. And now we see in America swastikas being painted, other expressions [such as phoned-in] threats or aggression against kids on campuses. So it spreads. It’s not isolated to one geographic locale. It’s like a virus that spreads. And you have to declare it for what it is.”
The interview with Hoenlein was conducted mere hours before news emerged of an apparently anti-Semitic act of vandalism that took place in his hometown of Philadelphia. Several tombstones in the city’s Jewish Mount Carmel Cemetery had been toppled in what the Israeli government called a “shocking” and worrying act.
On Thursday, February 23, 2017 the words “Gas the Jews” and a Nazi swastika were spray-painted on the ground in Hamilton’s Escarpment Rail Trail.
This incident is just the latest in a string of anti-Jewish hate crimes and vandalism that occurred in Canada in the last few years.
On Tuesday, posters questioning the number of Jewish Holocaust victims were found taped to windows and doors at the University of Calgary. The posters read, in part, “did ‘6 million’ really die?”
During a sermon at a London, Ontario mosque in 2011 an imam chastised his congregation for hiring Jewish lawyers. “Islamic institutions organizations are suing one another. All appointing lawyers. Who are these lawyers? Jews. And who is the judge? A Jew as well. Who is paying for these lawyers? You and I”, complained Riad Ouarzazi.
During al-Quds Day rally in 2013 in Toronto, Elias Hazineh, former President of the Palestine House in Canada, called for the killing of the Israeli Jews if they do not leave Palestine immediately.
An imam at Al Andalous Islamic Center in Montreal was exposed praying in 2014 to Allah to “destroy the accursed Jews” and to “make their children orphans and their women widows”.
Opposition leader Isaac Herzog on Monday called on Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to establish an “emergency national program” to prepare for a “waves” of Jewish immigration, amid a series of anti-Semitic incidents in the United States and France.
“I wish to express my shock and vociferous condemnation of the outbreak of anti-Semitic incidents in the United States, France and other places around the world,” Herzog told his weekly Zionist Union faction meeting.
“I call on the government to urgently prepare and establish and emergency national program for the possibility that we will see waves of our Jewish brothers immigrating to Israel,” Herzog said.
The opposition leader spoke a day after dozens of headstones were found toppled at a Jewish cemetery in Philadelphia, a week after a similar incident last week in which over 150 graves were damaged at a Jewish graveyard near St. Louis, and shortly before the latest in a series of bomb threats to Jewish Community Centers across the US.
“I am sure that the US government will do all it can to put an end to this phenomenon with all its might,” he added.
The reason for the grave encounter between a group of young Muslims and two Jewish brothers donning kippot in Bondy, a suburb of Paris with a large Muslim population, is still unclear. The French police are conducting an investigation, though the brothers’ father has no doubt that it was an anti-Semitic attack. The incident in Bondy has raised once again the issue of anti-Semitism in France, a major component of the republic’s ills that has risen to the surface ahead of the presidential elections in May.
During an annual meal hosted by CRIF, the umbrella organization representing French Jewry, it was reported that there had been a decrease in anti-Semitic incidents in France in 2016. However, the numerical drop is not reflected in the feelings of French Jews, who sense threats from all possible directions: The extreme Right and National Front activists, who represent the classic anti-Semitism that has always existed in France; the left-wing and Green Party radicals who blindly and unilaterally support the Palestinian narrative; and the Muslim activists in France who take advantage of the conflict in the Middle East to work out their frustrations and to advance themselves and their community.
Bondy Mayor Sylvine Thomassin (of the Socialist Party), who is trying to find her way into the hearts of local Muslim residents, declared in July that she supports labeling Israeli products from the settlements. In doing so, perhaps she managed to please her Muslim constituents, but she also harmed the Jewish residents who still live there. Thomassin’s interference only contributed to importing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to her district, despite the fact that this goes against Elysee policy, which seeks stability and calm in the suburbs. This is an issue that France must take seriously: You cannot, on the one hand, carry out pro-Palestinian policy, and on the other hand, be surprised by the polarization between the Muslim and Jewish populations in France.
A former Lib Dem peer suspended after a row over alleged anti-Semitic comments has been slammed by MPs for saying Britain’s leading group fighting hate speech against Jews should be stripped of its charitable status.
Baroness Jenny Tonge was suspended and then quit her party after hosting an event where an audience member said Jews were responsible for the Holocaust.
Now she has signed a petition calling the Campaign Against Antisemitism (CAA) – a group praised by Prime Minister Theresa May and numerous community leaders – a ‘Zionist propaganda organisation’.
The charity, which works closely with the Crown Prosecution Service to punish anti-Jewish bigots, was attacked in a petition created by blogger Tony Greenstein.
Mr Greenstein has previously stated online that ‘Zionists collaborated with the Nazis’ and helped ’round up’ Jews to send to Auschwitz.
Britain’s oldest serving MP and a veteran lawmaker for the opposition Labour party, Gerald Kaufman, died on Sunday at the age of 86, his family announced.
Kaufman died after several months suffering from an undisclosed illness.
The British-born child of Polish Jewish immigrants, Kaufman was one of the few prominent Jewish politicians in Britain. He was also a well-known and strident critic of Israel, calling for sanctions against the Jewish state over its policies toward the Palestinians and comparing IDF soldiers to Nazis.
Former party leader Ed Miliband, who is also Jewish, said Kaufman was “an outstanding servant of the Labour movement” whose “principles, values and friendship will be sorely missed,” the Daily Mail newspaper reported. (h/t Cliff)
Clearly, the IAF was promoting diverse familes by including a gay couple, single mother and Ethiopian couple. And why not? This is the reality of life in Israel.
Naturally, this is an inconvenient truth for Israel haters like douchebloggerTM Richard Silverstein, who predictably posted his objection to what he called the “pinkwashing.”
What Dicky won’t tell you is that gay people live freely in Israel, and do not end up like gay people in Gaza. Or even Iran, home of his beloved Press TV. And by “end up” I mean really, really dead.
Dicky then turns his attention to the Ethiopian family, to criticize Israel’s treatment of Ethiopians by bringing up the case of Toveet Radcliffe.
On February 12, 2017, we reported on the next phase of the so-called Women’s March, Women’s March calls for General Strike and Day Without A Women.
In that post, we called attention to the fact that Rasmea Odeh was one of the organizers, along with other radicals like Angela Davis, via Algemeiner:
A convicted Palestinian terrorist was among the eight feminist activists who called earlier this week on American women to join a March 8 international strike — which organizers are calling a protest “against male violence and in defense of reproductive rights.” ….
In a Guardian op-ed published on Monday — attention to which was brought on social media by investigative journalist and author Gary Weiss — Odeh, joined by Linda Martín Alcoff, Cinzia Arruzza, Tithi Bhattacharya, Nancy Fraser, Barbara Ransby, Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor and Angela Davis, wrote that the goal of the planned protest is to “mobilize women, including trans women, and all who support them in an international day of struggle — a day of striking, marching, blocking roads, bridges, and squares, abstaining from domestic, care and sex work, boycotting, calling out misogynistic politicians and companies, striking in educational institutions…Let us use the occasion of this international day of action to be done with lean-in feminism and to build in its place a feminism for the 99%, a grassroots, anti-capitalist feminism — a feminism in solidarity with working women, their families and their allies throughout the world.”
As reported by The Algemeiner on Monday, Odeh will be a featured speaker at the upcoming Jewish Voice for Peace (JVP) 2017 National Member Meeting — set to be held in Chicago from March 31 to April 2.
Israel haters and Electronic Intifadumbasses Ali Abunimah and Rania Khalek have been targeted by their own for a while now, because of their stance on the slaughter in Syria, which many see as apathy at best and pro-Assad at worst. Khalek, in particular, has been widely condemned, for accepting an invitation to speak at an Assad-affiliated conference.
And the stench of that decision just won’t go away for Khalek, with UNC Students for Justice in Palestine just cancelling a talk featuring her after some pressure was brought to bear.
PreOccupiedTerritory: Amnesty: Meals In Israeli Jails Contain Gluten (satire)
A leading organization advocating for political rights and against mistreatment of political detainees has criticized Israel for what it calls a glaring lack of respect for the humanity of Palestinian prisoners, as demonstrated by the presence of gluten in prison food.
Amnesty International released a harsh critique of the practice in Israeli civilian and military detention facilities, focusing on the nutritional and dietary aspects of the treatment in this week’s edition of exclusive focus on Israel. After spending the previous week noting the health hazards of sodium to Palestinian prisoners predisposed to heart disease, and the week before that denouncing the Prison Service and IDF for failing to offer multiple varieties of toothpaste, the organization published its report on what it termed the “appalling disregard for the long-term health of Palestinian prisoners” as evident in the carelessness with which gluten is included in prison cuisine.
“Every single person born before the twentieth century who ate gluten has died,” the report observed. “Yet Israel continues to serve food to Palestinian prisoners that contains this chemical. Our data indicate that this behavior has remained constant throughout the existence of the brutal Israeli incarceration system, even as evidence emerged of the dangers of gluten.”
Earlier in the month we examined a Feb. 13th Guardian article written by Sarah Helm, “It’s too late to stop the senseless capture of Palestinian land”, a propagandistic tour de force which amplified the prophetic anti-Zionist musings of a Palestinian “cartographer“ named Khalil Tufakji.
There were multiple errors and misleading claims in Helm’s report, but one we particularly focused on is found in the following passage:
I’ve been listening to Tufakji since the mid-1990s and everything he foresaw has so far come true. He pointed out where a tunnel would be drilled through the Mount of Olives to connect settlements – it seemed impossible but we are now driving through it.
As we noted at the time, whilst it’s unclear where precisely Helm was driving, she certainly wasn’t driving through the historic 3,000 year old Jewish cemetery adjacent to Jerusalem’s Old City – for the simple reason that there is no such tunnel at that location! We considered that Helm may have conflated the fake Mount of Olives tunnel with the real Mount Scopus tunnel (Derech Har HaTsofim Tunnel) quite a few kilometers away.
Although the appointment of Mahmoud al-Aloul does not qualify him as Abbas’ successor, it does introduce a new name to the list of possibilities.
“Grant Rumley, a fellow at the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, told the [Jerusalem] Post that while Aloul’s election may not be a game changer in terms of succession, it does introduce a new contender.
“By virtue of his new position as No. 2 in Fatah, Aloul cannot be ignored or discounted in the race to replace Abbas,” Rumley said.
After Aloul completes his one-year term as vice chairman, the central committee will either extend Aloul’s term or vote for a new vice chairman.”
However, with the BBC Jerusalem bureau’s chronic under-reporting of Palestinian affairs continuing, audiences remain in the dark with regard to these developments and their possible implications. The fact that Fatah dominates the PLO and the foreign donor funded Palestinian Authority means that its internal politics clearly have significant effect on what the BBC terms “the Middle East peace process”. BBC audiences, however, continue to be deprived of the information which would enhance their understanding of that particular “international issue“.
British border authorities on Saturday detained a controversial right-wing Polish former priest at London’s Stansted airport, preventing him from speaking at a rally in central England.
Jacek Miedlar, 28, is known in Poland for sympathizing with the right-wing nationalist group ONR — serving as their unofficial chaplain — and was invited to speak at a far-right rally in Telford.
However, he was unable to attend the event, organized by far-right group Britain First, after being detained by officials, The Guardian reported.
“An individual was detained at Stansted airport at 8.40am this morning by Border Force officers working closely with Essex police,” said the interior ministry.
“Where we believe someone poses a risk, Border Force officers can – and do – refuse them entry.”
About a dozen residents of Orchard Park found their vehicles and property defaced with spray-painted swastikas and vulgar graffiti Saturday morning, and village police said reports had been coming in throughout the day.
The vandals also wrote racial slurs and Nazi symbols on playground equipment at South Davis Elementary School. A GoFundMe account to help clean up the graffiti at the school has been established at: https://www.gofundme.com/southdaviscleanup.
At least nine vehicles were vandalized in the parking lot of an apartment complex on South Lincoln Avenue, according to Orchard Park Police Lt. Jason Schiedel. Another car was in a private driveway nearby. So far police have reports of 11 vehicles that were hit.
Australia and Israel have announced plans to establish an air services agreement to facilitate more travel and trade between the two countries.
Prime Ministers Malcolm Turnbull and Benjamin Netanyahu have signed a memorandum of understanding to “establish the first treaty-level air services framework” between Australia and Israel.
“For the first time, airlines of Israel and Australia can begin services between countries either using their own aircraft or via code share arrangements with other airlines,” Chester said in a statement on February 23.
“During 2016, 12,600 Israeli residents visited Australia, while 22,000 Australians visited Israel. We expect these numbers to grow as the new arrangements are put in place.”
The MoU signing was quickly followed with the announcement Qantas and El Al planned to establish a codeshare agreement for flights between Australia and Israel, via Asia or Africa.
While Coldplay continued to formally deny plans for upcoming concerts in Israel and the West Bank, an Israeli PR company sent out photos of band members in Israel with the directors of a music festival production company, and said that is exactly what the UK group is finalizing.
Nidar Oz Communications sent out photos of the mega-band’s singer Chris Martin and guitarist Jonny Buckland at the weekend with Israeli music festival producers Roe Schwartz and Ilan Factor, and Eitan Bar Zeev, the CEO of the Big shopping center chain.
Schwartz and Factor run Forum Factor, an events production company that handles major music festivals in Israel.
The PR firm said Martin was in Israel in order to sign contracts and scout locations, though Martin in a tweet Friday had denied this.
“Now it’s official and exciting!” stated the Nidar Oz press release sent Friday, relaying the information about Coldplay’s arrival in Israel and tour of possible sites for the future performances. “Within the framework of signing the contract, there will be a cooperative effort with Israeli and Palestinian artists who will participate at the height of a number of performances that will allow all residents of the area and neighboring countries to watch and enjoy the biggest band in the world.”
The Israeli tech company Mobileye will introduce Global RoadBook, its road management data-generation technology, into newly developed BMW models entering the market in 2018.
The technology will provide real-time info on traffic density, potential road hazards, weather conditions, on-street parking, and other data.
“This agreement to crowdsource real-time data using vehicles equipped with [Mobileye’s] camera-based Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) technology is a critical enabler for autonomous driving through next-generation high-definition (HD) maps aimed at making driving safer and more efficient for consumers,” a joint statement explained.
ADAS is already used by more than 25 automakers in 313 models.
“Camera-based ADAS systems are already making the roads safer,” said Prof. Amnon Shashua, chairman and CTO of Mobileye. “Global RoadBook is an initiative to utilize data from these cameras to create the high-definition maps required to make the next generation of autonomous driving a reality, in an inclusive way which will create an industry standard.”
Mobileye technology is already being used by BMW to produce fully autonomous vehicles planned for 2021.
Amblyopia (“lazy eye”), a disorder affecting three to five percent of the general population, usually is treated by patching the stronger eye or blurring its vision with atropine drops, in order to force the brain to use images from the weaker eye.
Yet only 60% achieve normal vision, and 35% of those who improve eventually regress. Moreover, compliance is only around 50% since nobody – and especially children – enjoys using eyepatches or eye drops.
The Israeli company Medisim is working to commercialize a new approach, BinoVision video goggles, based on research showing that the brain can be stimulated to improve visual function. The sophisticated device presents separate and independent views of the same image to each eye.
The high-tech goggles connect to any streaming video source, such as cable modem, laptop, game console or even smartphone, turning any content – movies, cartoons, games, music videos, TV shows – into a fun mode of therapy.
Remember Israeli football/soccer player Almog Cohen’s display of Jewish pride during a goal celebration in December last year?
Well, fellow Israeli player Tomer Hemed, who plays as a striker for English Championship club Brighton & Hove Albion, also wants everyone to know he is a proud Jew and Israeli.
Now that’s what I call a close shave.
We have lots of ideas, but we need more resources to be even more effective. Please donate today to help get the message out and to help defend Israel.